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  1. Seed-set density is an important agronomic trait in rice. However, its genetic mechanism is complex. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are ideal materials for studying complex traits.

    Authors: Dachuan Wang, Kai Zhou, Siqian Xiang, Qiuli Zhang, Ruxiang Li, Miaomiao Li, Peixuan Liang, Naz Farkhanda, Guanghua He, Yinghua Ling and Fangming Zhao

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:55

    Content type: Original article

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  2. Understanding and identifying the factors responsible for genetic differentiation is of fundamental importance for efficient utilization and conservation of traditional rice landraces. In this study, we examin...

    Authors: Di Cui, Cuifeng Tang, Hongfeng Lu, Jinmei Li, Xiaoding Ma, Xinxiang A, Bing Han, Yayun Yang, Chao Dong, Feifei Zhang, Luyuan Dai and Longzhi Han

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:54

    Content type: Original article

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  3. Vietnam possesses a vast diversity of rice landraces due to its geographical situation, latitudinal range, and a variety of ecosystems. This genetic diversity constitutes a highly valuable resource at a time w...

    Authors: Janet Higgins, Bruno Santos, Tran Dang Khanh, Khuat Huu Trung, Tran Duy Duong, Nguyen Thi Phuong Doai, Nguyen Truong Khoa, Dang Thi Thanh Ha, Nguyen Thuy Diep, Kieu Thi Dung, Cong Nguyen Phi, Tran Thi Thuy, Nguyen Thanh Tuan, Hoang Dung Tran, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Hoang Thi Giang…

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:52

    Content type: Original article

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  4. Although panicle blast is more destructive to yield loss than leaf blast in rice, the cloned genes that function in panicle blast resistance are still very limited and the molecular mechanisms underlying panic...

    Authors: Jingfang Dong, Lian Zhou, Aiqing Feng, Shaohong Zhang, Hua Fu, Luo Chen, Junliang Zhao, Tifeng Yang, Wu Yang, Yamei Ma, Jian Wang, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Qing Liu and Bin Liu

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:51

    Content type: Original article

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  5. Tetrapyrroles play indispensable roles in various biological processes. In higher plants, glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (GSAM) converts glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) to 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA),...

    Authors: Qian Wang, Baiyang Zhu, Congping Chen, Zhaodi Yuan, Jia Guo, Xiaorong Yang, San Wang, Yan Lv, Qingsong Liu, Bin Yang, Changhui Sun, Pingrong Wang and Xiaojian Deng

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:50

    Content type: Original article

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  6. We report here the genome-wide changes resulting from low N (N-W+), low water (N+W-)) and dual stresses (N-W-) in root and shoot tissues of two rice genotypes, namely, IR 64 (IR64) and Nagina 22 (N22), and the...

    Authors: Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Subodh Kumar Sinha, Sureshkumar V, Manju Rani, Manish Ranjan Saini, Sapna Kumari, Megha Kaushik, Chandra Prakash, Venkatesh K., G. P. Singh, Trilochan Mohapatra and Pranab Kumar Mandal

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:49

    Content type: Original article

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  7. The rice (Oryza sativa) gene Xa7 has been hypothesized to be a typical executor resistance gene against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and has conferred durable resistance in the field for decades. Its iden...

    Authors: Congying Wang, Shen Chen, Aiqing Feng, Jing Su, Wenjuan Wang, Jinqi Feng, Bing Chen, Meiying Zhang, Jianyuan Yang, Liexian Zeng and Xiaoyuan Zhu

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:48

    Content type: Original article

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  8. Ribosomes responsible for transcription and translation of plastid-encoded proteins in chloroplasts are essential for chloroplast development and plant growth. Although most ribosomal proteins in plastids have...

    Authors: Kunneng Zhou, Caijuan Zhang, Jiafa Xia, Peng Yun, Yuanlei Wang, Tingchen Ma and Zefu Li

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:47

    Content type: Original article

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  9. Plant plastidic caseinolytic protease (Clp) is a central part of the plastid protease network and consists of multiple subunits. The molecular functions of many Clps in plants, especially in crops, are not wel...

    Authors: Xi Liu, Ziyi Xu, Yanrong Yang, Penghui Cao, Hang Cheng and Haiying Zhou

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:45

    Content type: Original article

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  10. Understanding crops genetic diversity and the evolutionary processes that accompanied their worldwide spread is useful for designing effective breeding strategies. Madagascar Island was one of the last major O...

    Authors: Nourollah Ahmadi, Alain Ramanantsoanirina, João D. Santos, Julien Frouin and Tendro Radanielina

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:44

    Content type: Original article

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  11. Grain size and weight are important target traits determining grain yield and quality in rice. Wild rice species possess substantial elite genes that can be served as an important resource for genetic improvem...

    Authors: Yue Feng, Xiaoping Yuan, Yiping Wang, Yaolong Yang, Mengchen Zhang, Hanyong Yu, Qun Xu, Shan Wang, Xiaojun Niu and Xinghua Wei

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:43

    Content type: Original article

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  12. Cold stress is the main abiotic stress in rice, which seriously affects the growth and yield of rice. Identification of cold tolerance genes is of great significance for rice to solve these problems. GATA-fami...

    Authors: Hongjia Zhang, Tao Wu, Zhao Li, Kai Huang, Na-Eun Kim, Ziming Ma, Soon-Wook Kwon, Wenzhu Jiang and Xinglin Du

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:42

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the ...

    Authors: Dagang Tian, Zaijie Chen, Yan Lin, Tingmin Liang, Ziqiang Chen, Xinrui Guo, Feng Wang and Zonghua Wang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:40

    Content type: Original article

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  14. The plant-specific valine-glutamine (VQ) protein family with the conserved motif FxxxVQxLTG reportedly functions with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in plant immunity. However, the roles of VQ pro...

    Authors: Na Li, Zeyu Yang, Juan Li, Wenya Xie, Xiaofeng Qin, Yuanrong Kang, Qinglu Zhang, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Haigang Ma and Shiping Wang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:39

    Content type: Original article

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  15. Xanthomonas oryzae (Xo) is one of the important pathogenic bacterial groups affecting rice production. Its pathovars Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) cause bacterial ...

    Authors: Zhe Ni, Yongqiang Cao, Xia Jin, Zhuomin Fu, Jianyuan Li, Xiuyu Mo, Yongqiang He, Jiliang Tang and Sheng Huang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:38

    Content type: Short communication

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  16. Anthocyanins cause purple, brown or red colors in various tissues of rice plants, but the specific determinant factors and regulatory systems for anthocyanin biosynthesis in almost all tissues remain largely u...

    Authors: Lingzhi Meng, Changyan Qi, Cuihong Wang, Shuai Wang, Chunlei Zhou, Yulong Ren, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Zhichao Zhao, Jie Wang, Qibing Lin, Shanshan Zhu, Haiyang Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Cailin Lei…

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:37

    Content type: Original article

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  17. Plant cell walls are the main physical barrier encountered by pathogens colonizing plant tissues. Alteration of cell wall integrity (CWI) can activate specific defenses by impairing proteins involved in cell w...

    Authors: Yongrun Cao, Yue Zhang, Yuyu Chen, Ning Yu, Shah Liaqat, Weixun Wu, Daibo Chen, Shihua Cheng, Xinghua Wei, Liyong Cao, Yingxin Zhang and Qunen Liu

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:36

    Content type: Original article

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  18. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) can be used to dissect complex traits, from which single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs) containing a target quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be developed, and...

    Authors: Peixuan Liang, Hui Wang, Qiuli Zhang, Kai Zhou, Miaomiao Li, Ruxiang Li, Siqian Xiang, Ting Zhang, Yinghua Ling, Zhenglin Yang, Guanghua He and Fangming Zhao

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:35

    Content type: Original article

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  19. Lesion mimic mutants spontaneously produce disease spots in the absence of biotic or abiotic stresses. Analyzing lesion mimic mutants’ sheds light on the mechanisms underlying programmed cell death and defense...

    Authors: R. A. O. Yuchun, J. I. A. O. Ran, W. A. N. G. Sheng, W. U. Xianmei, Y. E. Hanfei, P. A. N. Chenyang, L. I. Sanfeng, Xin Dedong, Z. H. O. U. Weiyong, D. A. I. Gaoxing, H. U. Juan, R. E. N. Deyong and W. A. N. G. Yuexing

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:34

    Content type: Original article

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  20. Grain chalkiness is one of important factors affected rice grain quality. It is known that chalkiness is affected by the high temperature during the seed filling period. Although a larger of QTLs for chalkines...

    Authors: Weifeng Yang, Jiayan Liang, Qingwen Hao, Xin Luan, Quanya Tan, Shiwan Lin, Haitao Zhu, Guifu Liu, Zupei Liu, Suhong Bu, Shaokui Wang and Guiquan Zhang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:33

    Content type: Original article

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  21. Carotenoid biosynthesis is essential for the generation of photosynthetic pigments, phytohormone production, and flower color development. The light harvesting like 3 (LIL3) protein, which belongs to the light...

    Authors: Feng Yang, Das Debatosh, Tao Song and Jian-hua Zhang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:32

    Content type: Original article

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    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Rice 2021 14:41

  22. Plant glycine-rich proteins are categorized into several classes based on their protein structures. The glycine-rich RNA binding proteins (GRPs) are members of class IV subfamily possessing N-terminus RNA-reco...

    Authors: Jae Sung Shim, Su-Hyun Park, Dong-Keun Lee, Youn Shic Kim, Soo-Chul Park, Mark Christian Felipe R. Redillas, Jun Sung Seo and Ju-Kon Kim

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:31

    Content type: Original article

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  23. Biotic stresses represent a serious threat to rice production to meet global food demand and thus pose a major challenge for scientists, who need to understand the intricate defense mechanisms. Proteomics and ...

    Authors: Kieu Thi Xuan Vo, Md Mizanor Rahman, Md Mustafizur Rahman, Kieu Thi Thuy Trinh, Sun Tae Kim and Jong-Seong Jeon

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:30

    Content type: Review

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  24. The sequences of several important mitochondrion-encoded genes involved in respiration in higher plants are interrupted by introns. Many nuclear-encoded factors are involved in splicing these introns, but the ...

    Authors: Liang Wang, Wenwei Zhang, Shijia Liu, Yunlu Tian, Xi Liu, Haigang Yan, Yue Cai, Xuan Teng, Hui Dong, Rongbo Chen, Xiaokang Jiang, Yihua Wang and Jianmin Wan

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:29

    Content type: Original article

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  25. Aerobic rice production (AP) may be a solution to the looming water crisis by utilising less water compared to traditional flooded culture. As such, development of genotypes with narrow root cone angle (RCA) i...

    Authors: Ricky Vinarao, Christopher Proud, Xiaolu Zhang, Peter Snell, Shu Fukai and Jaquie Mitchell

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:28

    Content type: Original article

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  26. Rice is staple food for over two billion people. Planthoppers like BPH and WBPH occur together in most of rice growing regions across Asia and cause extensive yield loss by feeding and transmission of disease-...

    Authors: Dhanasekar Divya, Nihar Sahu, P. Sairam Reddy, Suresh Nair and J. S. Bentur

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:27

    Content type: Original article

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  27. Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. An increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to fine-tune rice immunity against M. oryzae and coordinate w...

    Authors: Jin-Feng Chen, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Yan Li, Ting-Ting Li, Yong Zhu, Xue-Mei Yang, Shi-Xin Zhou, He Wang, Ji-Qun Zhao, Mei Pu, Hui Feng, Jing Fan, Ji-Wei Zhang, Yan-Yan Huang and Wen-Ming Wang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:26

    Content type: Original article

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  28. SDG711 is a histone H3K27me2/3 transmethylase in rice, a homolog of CLF in Arabidopsis, and plays key roles in regulating flowering time and panicle development. In this work, we investigated the role of SDG71...

    Authors: Xiaoyun Liu, Junling Luo, Tiantian Li, Huilan Yang, Ping Wang, Lufang Su, Yu Zheng, Chun Bao and Chao Zhou

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:25

    Content type: Original article

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  29. OryzaGenome (http://​viewer.​shigen.​info/​oryzagenome21det​ail/​index.​xhtml), a feature within Oryzabase (

    Authors: Hiromi Kajiya-Kanegae, Hajime Ohyanagi, Toshinobu Ebata, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Akio Onogi, Yuji Sawada, Masami Yokota Hirai, Zi-Xuan Wang, Bin Han, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Katsutoshi Tsuda, Toshiya Suzuki, Misuzu Nosaka-Takahashi, Ken-ichi Nonomura…

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:24

    Content type: Original article

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  30. Zn deficiency is one of the leading public health problems in the world. Staple food crop, such as rice, cannot provide enough Zn to meet the daily dietary requirement because Zn in grain would chelate with ph...

    Authors: Yin Wang, Yusha Meng, Yanping Ma, Lei Liu, Dianxing Wu, Xiaoli Shu, Liqing Pan and Qixian Lai

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:23

    Content type: Original article

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  31. Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most devastating bacterial diseases of rice in temperate and tropical regions. Breeding and deployment of resistant cultivars car...

    Authors: Jialing Lu, Chunchao Wang, Dan Zeng, Jianmin Li, Xiaorong Shi, Yingyao Shi and Yongli Zhou

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:22

    Content type: Original article

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  32. Heading date is an important agronomic trait of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and is regulated by numerous genes, some of which exhibit functional divergence in a genetic background-dependent manner. Here, we identified...

    Authors: Yong Hu, Xin Zhou, Bo Zhang, Shuangle Li, Xiaowei Fan, Hu Zhao, Jia Zhang, Haiyang Liu, Qin He, Qiuping Li, Mohammed Ayaad, Aiqing You and Yongzhong Xing

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:20

    Content type: Original article

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  33. Cellulose synthase (CESA) mutants have potential use in straw processing due to their lower cellulose content, but almost all of the mutants exhibit defective phenotypes in plant growth and development. Balanc...

    Authors: Yafeng Ye, Shuoxun Wang, Kun Wu, Yan Ren, Hongrui Jiang, Jianfeng Chen, Liangzhi Tao, Xiangdong Fu, Binmei Liu and Yuejin Wu

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:19

    Content type: Original article

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  34. The harvest index (HI) is a measure of the biological success of forming harvestable products. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of HI in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is limited, because it is a complex t...

    Authors: Hiroki Saito, Yoshimichi Fukuta, Mitsuhiro Obara, Asami Tomita, Tsutomu Ishimaru, Kazuhiro Sasaki, Daisuke Fujita and Nobuya Kobayashi

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:18

    Content type: Original article

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  35. Genetic engineering of rice provides a means for improving rice grain quality and yield, and the introduction and expression of multiple genes can produce new traits that would otherwise be difficult to obtain...

    Authors: Leyla T. Hathwaik, James Horstman, James G. Thomson and Roger Thilmony

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:17

    Content type: Original article

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  36. Neo-tetraploid rice (NTR) is a useful new germplasm that developed from the descendants of the autotetraploid rice (ATR) hybrids. NTR showed improved fertility and yield potential, and produced high yield hete...

    Authors: Hang Yu, Qihang Li, Yudi Li, Huijing Yang, Zijun Lu, Jinwen Wu, Zemin Zhang, Muhammad Qasim Shahid and Xiangdong Liu

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:16

    Content type: Original article

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  37. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) can play important roles in many biological processes. However, no study of the influence of epigenetics factors or the 3D structure of the genome in...

    Authors: Run Zhou, Pablo Sanz-Jimenez, Xi-Tong Zhu, Jia-Wu Feng, Lin Shao, Jia-Ming Song and Ling-Ling Chen

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:14

    Content type: Original article

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  38. Mitochondria are vital regulators of plant growth and development, constitute the predominant source of ATP, and participate in multiple anabolic and catabolic metabolic pathways. But the mechanism by which dy...

    Authors: Lisha Zhang, Ping Feng, Yao Deng, Wuzhong Yin, Yingchun Wan, Ting Lei, Guanghua He and Nan Wang

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:13

    Content type: Original article

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  39. Avr-Pita was the first effector identified in the blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae)–rice (Oryza sativa) pathosystem. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its effects on the host plant has remained a long-s...

    Authors: Jingluan Han, Xiaoyu Wang, Fengpin Wang, Zhe Zhao, Gousi Li, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Jing Su and Letian Chen

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:12

    Content type: Original article

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  40. Plant senescence is a complicated process involving multiple regulations, such as temperature, light, reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous hormone levels, and diseases. Although many such genes have been ...

    Authors: Xiaosheng Zhao, Tianbo Zhang, Huijing Feng, Tiancheng Qiu, Zichao Li, Jun Yang, You-Liang Peng and Wensheng Zhao

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:10

    Content type: Original article

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  41. Rice is considered as a salt-sensitive plant, particularly at early vegetative stage, and its production is suffered from salinity due to expansion of salt affected land in areas under cultivation. Hence, sign...

    Authors: Leila Nayyeripasand, Ghasem Ali Garoosi and Asadollah Ahmadikhah

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:9

    Content type: Original article

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  42. In temperate rice cultivation regions, japonica rice cultivars are grown preferentially because consumers deem them to have good eating quality, whereas indica rice cultivars have high grain yields and strong hea...

    Authors: Kiyosumi Hori, Keitaro Suzuki, Haruka Ishikawa, Yasunori Nonoue, Kazufumi Nagata, Shuichi Fukuoka and Junichi Tanaka

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:8

    Content type: Original article

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  43. Nitrogen-based nutrients are the main factors affecting rice growth and development. Root systems play an important role in helping plants to obtain nutrients from the soil. Root morphology and physiology are ...

    Authors: Wei Xin, Lina Zhang, Jiping Gao, Wenzhong Zhang, Jun Yi, Xiaoxi Zhen, Congyuan Bi, Dawei He, Shiming Liu and Xinyu Zhao

    Citation: Rice 2021 14:5

    Content type: Original article

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