Involvement of mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6 in UV induced transcripts accumulation of genes in phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice
© Wankhede et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 17 December 2012
Accepted: 12 August 2013
Published: 2 December 2013
Ultra violet radiation leads to accumulation of phytoalexins (PA) in rice (Oryza sativa) which are typically accumulated when the plants are infected with rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Although extensive works have been done in elucidating phytoalexin biosynthesis, UV stress signal transduction leading to accumulations of rice phytoalexin is largely unknown.
In the present study, the involvement of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been shown in UV induced regulation of genes in phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice. UV induced activation of MAPK and expression of PA biosynthesis genes were shown to be inhibited with staurosporin and MAPK inhibitors. Transcript regulation studies and kinase assays indicated involvement of OsMKK6 in the process. Transgenic rice overexpressing constitutive active OsMKK6 EE exhibited higher expression of genes of PA biosynthesis pathway upon UV stress and also upon infection with M. oryzae.
These results suggest a key role of OsMKK6 in regulation of UV responsive expression of genes of PA biosynthesis in rice. This study will help to elucidate the intricate signalling components of UV leading to phytoalexins biosynthesis in rice.
In rice UV radiation leads to accumulation of phytoalexins (PA) which are typically accumulated when rice (Oryza sativa) plants are infected with rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (Cartwright et al. 1981; Kodama et al. 1988). Most of the rice phytoalexins are diterpenoid in nature and fourteen of such compounds have been identified in rice leaves/cells in response to infection by blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, elicitors and UV irradiations. These phytoalexins have been grouped into four distinct types of polycyclic diterpene based on the structures of their diterpene hydrocarbon precursors: phytocassanes A–E, oryzalexins A–F, momi-lactones A and B, and oryzalexin S (Additional file 1: Figure S1) (Shimura et al. 2007; Ahuja et al. 2012). Among the rice PA, momilactones are considered to be the major constituents (Cartwright et al. 1981; Kodama et al. 19881992). Rice phytoalexins were shown to have anti-fungal activities and their involvement in plant disease resistance have also been proposed (Dillon et al. 1994Peters 2006; Hasegawa et al. 2010). Although PA induction in response to microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) has been investigated recently (Kurusu et al. 2010; Kishi-Kaboshi et al. 2010), the signalling mechanism by UV induced phytoalexin accumulation is largely unknown. Here, the role of MAPK signalling cascade in particular of OsMKK6, in UV induced regulation of genes in phytoalexins biosynthesis in rice leaves has been investigated.
Results and discussion
UV induces expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic pathway genes and OsMKK6
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and is known to have important functions in regulating stress responses (Suarez-Rodriguez et al. 2010; Rao et al. 2011; Sinha et al. 2011; Raina et al. 2012). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), a component of MAPK cascade is believed to be a point of signal convergence and thus acts as a key component of MAPK cascade regulating various stress responses (Suarez-Rodriguez et al. 2010; Kumar et al. 2012). Since regulation of MAPK components also occur at transcriptional level (Morris 2001Kumar et al. 2008), the expression profile of rice MAPKKs was studied upon UV elicitation. The maximum UV responsive expression was observed for OsMKK6 followed by OsMKK4 and OsMKK1 (Figure 1b).
OsMKK6 is phosphorylated in response to UV in rice leaves
Specific kinase inhibitors suppress UV induced expression of PA genes in rice leaves
To establish a relationship between MAPK and up-regulated PA biosynthesis genes pharmacological experiment was employed using staurosporin and MAPK cascade specific inhibitors (U0126, PD169316 and SB202190). U0126 blocks MAPKK activation whereas PD169316 and SB202190 block MAPK activation (Suarez-Rodriguez et al. 2010).
Further, this approach was also used to assess the involvement of MAPK cascade in UV induced expression of genes in PA biosynthesis. The UV induced expression of OsKSL4, CYP99A3 and OsMAS was found to be reduced in inhibitors fed plants (Figure 3c) indicating involvement of MAPK cascade in UV induced PA accumulation. There were slight differences in inhibition of MBP phosphorylation activity in different time points (such as in U0126, SB202190), showing near complete inhibition in some case to relatively less in the other. The variations observed in MBP phosphorylation activity at different time points could be attributed to the use of ‘seedlings’ for inhibitor treatments as against ‘cell cultures’ which appears to respond more uniformly to such inhibitor treatments (Ramani and Chelliah, 2007). Further, differential uptake of inhibitors by plants might also be partly responsible for differences in inhibition pattern.
Transgenic rice overexpressing OsMKK6 EE exhibits more pronounced effect on UV and blast inducible expression of PA biosynthesis genes
In order to investigate the direct involvement of OsMKK6 in UV inducible expression of genes in PA biosynthesis, transgenic rice lines overexpressing constitutively active form of OsMKK6 (OsMKK6EE) were generated. The expression of OsMKK6 EE was driven in transgenic lines by CaMV 35S promoter (Additional file 2: Figure S2a-f). Two homozygous OsMKK6 EE - overexpression lines (OsMKK6 EE -10 and OsMKK6 EE -18) in their T3 generation were used for the study. Expression levels of OsMKK6 were checked in three weeks old transgenic plants by qRT-PCR. OsMKK6 EE -10 and OsMKK6 EE -18 lines showed ~7 fold and ~4 fold increased OsMKK6 transcript levels, respectively as compared to wild type plants (Additional file 2: Figure S2g). These lines were used to investigate the effect of OsMKK6 EE over expression, on UV inducible expression pattern of genes involved in PA biosynthesis.
In recent years two independent studies have shed light on PA biosynthesis in rice using suspension cultured rice cells and elicitors. Kishi-Kaboshi et al. (2010) have shown role of OsMKK4 in expression of PA genes and biosynthesis of diterpenoid phytoalexins, momilactones and phytocassanes in response to fungal elicitor (N-acetylchitooctaose). Another study (Kurusu et al. 2010) has demonstrated the role of OsCIPK14/15 in regulation of genes in PA biosynthesis and other defense responses induced by fungal elicitor (Trichoderma viride/ethylene-inducing xylanase [TvX/EIX]). These two reports and our findings indicate involvement of distinct signalling pathways in regulation of PA biosynthesis in rice depending upon upstream signal. It has been shown that even distinct MAMPs elicit distinct Ca2+ signatures in amplitude and duration giving specific responses (Tena et al. 2011). UV and MAMPs are different in nature, therefore, are likely to activate distinct signalling. It is also plausible that the pathways act synergistically in the regulation of PA biosynthesis. Further, it is important to note that both the studies (Kishi-Kaboshi et al. 2010; Kurusu et al. 2010) showing role of OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and OsCIPK14/15 have been performed in suspension cell cultures which lack cellular differentiation and provide entirely different environmental conditions than naturally grown plants.
Since, there was no inclusion of OsMKK6 in the study by Kishi-Kaboshi et al. (2010), it is not possible to assess contribution of OsMKK6 towards regulation of PA in response to MAMP in rice cells. Similarly, in the present work, study on OsMKK4 was limited only to expression analysis and OsMKK4 albeit showed higher expression upon UV elicitation.
To conclude, this study has shown the role of MAPK cascade in particular of the OsMKK6 in the regulation of genes in phytoalexin biosynthesis in response to UV and blast infection.
Plant material, stress and inhibitors treatments
Oryza sativa L. indica cultivar group var Pusa Basmati 1 was used in the present study. Plants were grown in growth chamber at 28°C with 16/8 day light condition or in green house at 28°C and three-four week old plants were used for the experiments. Transgenic plants were germinated and grown on hygromycin media for two weeks then shifted to green house. UV treatment was given by exposing three-four week old rice seedlings to UV-B tubes (Phillips, Netherland) for 10 minutes. Inoculation of Magnaporthe oryzae- M. oryzae virulent strain (M. oryzae Dehradun isolate) was procured from National Research Centre for Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi. Fungal spore inoculation was followed as previously described (Reyna and Yang 2006). For inhibitor treatments, individual plants were incubated with inhibitors (Staurosporin, 0.5 μM; U0126, 100 μM; PD169316, 100 μM; and SB202190, 100 μM) in 2.0 ml tubes for four hours before UV treatment. The inhibitor fed plants were then UV irradiated. For mock treatment, plants were treated with solvent (DMSO 0.1) at final concentration of 0.1%.
The generation of rice transgenics overexpressing OsMKK6EE is being described in Additional file 2: Figure S2.
RT–PCR analysis, Kinase assay
The qRT-PCR was carried out in 48/96/384 well plate ABI Prism 7000 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, City, CA) as mentioned in previous report (Jaggi et al., 2011). Protein extraction and kinase assay were performed as mentioned previously (Rao et al., 2011). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) was performed following standard PCR conditions and optimal cycle number 26-30 in 50μl reaction volume. PCR amplification of Actin was used as control to ensure an equal cDNA. Amplification was carried out in iCyclerTM (BIO-RAD). The PCR product (50 μl) was loaded onto 1.5% agarose/EtBr gel and visualised.
This work was supported by the core grants of National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi, India from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. DPW and KK acknowledge University Grants Commission, India while PS thanks Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for the fellowships. Authors thank Dr. T.R. Sharma of National Research Centre on Plant Molecular Biology, New Delhi for providing the facilities for carrying out Magnaporthe oryzae infection in rice.
- Ahuja I, Kissen R, Bones AM: Phytoalexins in defense against pathogens. Trends Plant Sci 2012, 17: 73–90. 10.1016/j.tplants.2011.11.002View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brenner S, Johnson M, Bridgham J, et al.: Gene expression analysis by massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) on microbead arrays. Nat Biotechnol 2000, 18: 630–634. 10.1038/76469View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cartwright DW, Langcake P, Pryce RJ, Leworthy DP, Ride JP: Isolation and characterization of two phytoalexins from rice as momilactones A and B. Phytochemistry 1981, 20: 535–537. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84189-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dillon VM, Overton J, Grayer RJ, Harborne JB: Differences in phytoalexin response among rice cultivars of different resistance to blast. Phytochemistry 1994, 44: 599–603.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hasegawa M, Mitsuhara I, Seo S, Imai T, Koga J, Okada K, Yamane H, Ohashi Y: Phytoalexin accumulation in the interaction between rice and the blast fungus. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2010, 23: 1000–1011. 10.1094/MPMI-23-8-1000View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jaggi M, Kumar S, Sinha AK: Overexpression of an apoplastic peroxidase gene CrPrx in transgenic hairy root lines of Catharanthus roseus. Appl Microbiol Biotech 2011, 90: 1005–16. 10.1007/s00253-011-3131-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kishi-Kaboshi M, Okada K, Kurimoto L, et al.: A rice fungal MAMP responsive MAPK cascade regulates metabolic flow to antimicrobial metabolite synthesis. Plant J 2010, 63: 599–612. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04264.xPubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kodama O, Miyakawa J, Akatsuka T, Kiyosawa S: Sakuranetin, a flavanone phytoalexin from ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves. Phytochemistry 1992, 31: 3807–3809. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97532-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kodama O, Suzuki T, Miyakawa J, Akatsuka T: Ultraviolet-induced accumulation of phytoalexins in rice leaves. Agric Biol Chem 1988, 52: 2469–2473. 10.1271/bbb1961.52.2469View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar K, Rao KP, Sharma P, Sinha AK: Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 2008, 46: 891–897. 10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.05.014View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar K, Wankhede DP, Sinha AK: Signal convergence through the lenses of MAP kinases: paradigms of stress and hormone signaling in plants Front. Biol 2012. 10.1007/s11515-012-1207-1Google Scholar
- Kurusu T, Hamada J, Nokajima H, et al.: Regulation of microbe-associated molecular pattern-induced hypersensitive cell death, phytoalexin production, and defense gene expression by calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases, OsCIPK14/15, in rice cultured cells. Plant Physiol 2010, 53: 678–692.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morris PC: MAP kinase signal transduction pathways in plants. New Phytologist 2001, 151: 67–89. 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00167.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Okada A, Okada K, Miyamoto K, Koga J, Shibuya N, Nojiri H, Yamane H: OsTGAP1, a bZIP transcription factor, coordinately regulates the inductive production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice. J Biol Chem 2009, 284: 26510–18. 10.1074/jbc.M109.036871PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peters RJ: Uncovering the complex metabolic network underlying diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice and other cereal crop plants. Phytochemistry 2006, 67: 2307–2317. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.08.009View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramani S, Chelliah J: UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures. BMC Plant Biol 2007, 7: 61–77. 10.1186/1471-2229-7-61PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Raina SK, Wankhede DP, Jaggi M, Singh P, Jalmi SK, Raghuram B, Sheikh AH, Sinha AK: CrMPK3, a mitogen activated protein kinase from Catharanthus roseus and its possible role in stress induced biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. BMC Plant Biol 2012, 12: 134. PMID:22871174 PMID:22871174 10.1186/1471-2229-12-134PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rao KP, Vani G, Kumar K, Wankhede DP, Mishra M, Gupta M, Sinha AK: Arsenic stress activates MAP kinase in rice roots and leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys 2011, 506: 73–82. 10.1016/j.abb.2010.11.006View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reyna NR, Yang Y: Molecular analysis of the rice MAP Kinase gene family in relation to Magnaporthe grisea infection. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2006, 19: 530–540. 10.1094/MPMI-19-0530View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shimura K, Okada A, Okada K, Jikumaru Y, Ko KW, Toyomasu T, Sassa T, Hasegawa M, Kodama O, Shibuya N, Koga J, Nojiri H, Yamane H: Identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster in rice for momilactones. J Biol Chem 2007, 282: 34013–34018. 10.1074/jbc.M703344200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sinha AK, Jaggi M, Raghuram B, Tuteja N: Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in plants under abiotic stress. Plant Signal Behav 2011, 6: 196–203. 10.4161/psb.6.2.14701PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suarez-Rodriguez MC, Petersen M, Mundy J: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase signalling in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 2010, 61: 621–649. 10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112252View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tena G, Boudsocq M, Sheen J: Protein kinase signaling networks in plant innate immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2011, 14: 519–529. 10.1016/j.pbi.2011.05.006PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.