A WUSCHEL-like homeobox gene, OsWOX3B responses to NUDA/GL-1 locus in rice
© Zhang et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 30 March 2012
Accepted: 27 September 2012
Published: 3 October 2012
Most of the rice varieties are pubescent. However, the presence of trichomes is an undesirable characteristic in rice production because trichomes can cause atmospheric pollution. The use of glabrous rice varieties represents a solution to this problem. Yunnan Nuda Rice, a glabrous cultivar that constitutes approximately 20% of rice germplasms in Yunnan can provide important recourse for breeding of glabrous rice varieties.
The “Nuda” phenotype in Yunnan Nuda Rice was found to be controlled by a single recessive allelic gene within the well-characterized GL-1 locus. A high-resolution genetic and physical map was constructed using 1,192 Nuda individuals from the F2 population that was delivered from the cross between the Yunnan Nuda variety HMK and the pubescent TN1 variety. The NUDA/GL-1 gene was mapped to a 28.5 kb region containing six annotated genes based on the Nipponbare genomic sequence. By comparing the sequences and expression patterns of different pubescent and glabrous varieties, LOC_Os05g02730, a WUSCHEL-like homeobox gene (OsWOX3B) was identified as the candidate gene. This hypothesis was confirmed by RNA interference (RNAi) and transgenic complementation. Trichome deficiency in RNAi lines was associated with increased efficiency of grain packaging but did not affect the main agronomic traits.
NUDA/GL-1 locus encodes OsWOX3B gene.
Trichomes are ubiquitous in land plants (Southwood; Werker). The density, morphology, and chemical composition of leaf hairs vary widely and these factors contribute to their diverse physiological, physical and chemical functions ([Southwood 1986];[Werker 2000]). However, the presence of trichomes is an undesirable characteristic in rice production due to the generation of dust during harvesting and grain manipulating processes. Trichomes are important causes of atmospheric pollution and these pollutants can cause acute and chronic irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, which subsequently result in intolerable itching and allergy, and even longstanding diseases such as Rice Miller’s Syndrome (Lim et al.). Therefore, the use of glabrous rice varieties, which are trichome-deficient on the leaves and glumes, represents a solution to this problem.
Natural and artificial glabrous mutants have been identified in model plants such as Arabidopsis ([Karkkainen and Agren 2002]) and cereal crop species including rice ([Foster and Rutger 1978]), maize (Moose et al.), wheat ([Leisle 1974]) barley ([Sato and Takeda 1992]) oats ([Sarkarung and Collins 1977]) pearl millet ([Kumar and Andrews 1993]) and sorghum ([Gibson and Maiti 1983]). In particular, trichome formation in Arabidopsis has been used as a model system to study various developmental and cellular mechanisms in plants ([Hulskamp 2004]; Marks). With mutagenesis screens, dozens of genes involved in trichome initiation, spacing, and shape have been identified in Arabidopsis ([Marks 1997];[Hulskamp and Schnittger 1998][Serna and Martin 2006] Szymanski et al.). These genes encode several classes of transcriptional factors, including MYB (GL1) (Larkin et al.; Oppenheimer et al.), WD-40 (TTG1) (Walker et al.), bHLH (GL3/EGL3) (Payne et al.) and HD-ZIP (GL2) (Johnson et al.; Szymanski et al.). Recent studies of Arabidopsis have shown a complex that consists of GL1-GL3/EGL3-TTG1 promote GL2 expression to regulate hair cell differentiation (Payne et al.; Lloyd et al.). Several other MYB proteins, including CYC, TRY (Schellmann et al.) and ETC1 (Kirik et al.), compete with GL1 by interacting with bHLH proteins to repress trichome initiation on the leaf (Schellmann et al.). However, no glabrous genes have been cloned in cereal crop species to date.
Glabrous rice varieties have been identified in different locations worldwide including America, Yunnan in China and regions of south-eastern and southern Asia. Two loci (GL-1 and GL-2) for glabrous leaf and hull characteristics have been identified by classic genetic analysis. Two complementary genes (Hla and Hlb) have been identified for long pubescence on leaves, and one gene (Hg) has been identified for long pubescence on floral hulls (Nagao et al.). Among these genes, only the GL-1 gene from American glabrous rice has been mapped to chromosome 5 with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (Yu et al.). This locus was further narrowed to a region of approximately 157 kb (Wang et al.) and 54 kb (Li et al.) by two independent research groups.
Yunnan is a center of rice landrace diversity. It is reported that about 20% of the Yunnan landraces are glabrous rice varieties, known as Yunnan Nuda Rice (Qin et al.). In this study, the glabrous phenotypes of Yunnan upland Nuda rice landrace HMK were characterized. By genetic analysis, the glabrous phenotype of HMK was shown to be conferred by a pair of recessive genes, and this locus was allelic with the reported GL-1 locus. Furthermore, the NUDA/GL1 gene was cloned using a map-based approach and identified as a WUSCHEL-like gene (LOC_Os05g02730) belonging to the homeodomain (HD) subfamily.
Characterization of Yunnan nuda rice HMK variety
The presence of trichomes is ubiquitous in rice varieties. Leaf and grain phenotypes of the pubescent TN1 variety and the glabrous Yunnan Nuda Rice HMK variety were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Both the leaf and hull are glabrous and smooth in Yunnan Nuda Rice variety HMK (Figures1c and1d). Small bulges were present in place of macro hairs on the leaves (Figure1i), although glandular hairs and occasional micro hairs were still observed (Figure1j). There were no macro hairs on the lower (abaxial) surface (Figure1k). No hairs were observed on the surface of hulls (Figure1l).
Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the NUDA locus
The genetic basis of the Nuda phenotype was analyzed. All F1 hybrids resulting from the cross between TN1 and a Yunnan Nuda Rice variety, HMK, exhibited a trichomous leaf phenotype. One-hundred and fifty-eight F2 individuals were screened and 120 trichomous leaf individuals and 38 glabrous individuals were identified. A three to one (χ2 = 0.076, χ20.05 = 3.84) segregation ratio was determined. These results indicated that the Nuda phenotype was controlled by a single pair of recessive genes.
Markers used for NUDA/GL-1 gene mapping
NUDA/GL-1 candidate genes
Genomic sequences of the candidate region defined by the markers GL7 and GLSNP were retrieved from the sequence of Nipponbare PAC clone P0699E04 (AP001111) and 9311 contig Ctg015203 (AAAA02015203). A large deletion including LOC_Os05g02710 and LOC_Os05g02720 in 9311 was confirmed by PCR and sequence analyses, indicating that these genes do not encode NUDA/GL-1 in the pubescent Nipponbare and 9311 varieties (Figure2g).
The remaining four candidate genes were identified as follows: LOC_Os05g02750 encodes a bacterial-type ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein involved in efflux transport activity specific for UDP-glucose and aluminum tolerance in rice (Ma et al.); LOC_Os05g02740 and LOC_Os05g02754 encode expressed proteins with unknown functions; and LOC_Os05g02730, a WUSCHEL-like homeobox gene (OsWOX3B).
RNAi and genetic complementation of the NUDA/GL-1 gene
NUDA/GL-1/OsWOX3B encodes a member of WOX3 subfamily
Fourteen OsWOX genes and fifteen AtWOX genes were identified based on previous studies (Dai et al.; Haecker et al. Nardmann et al. Vandenbussche et al.Zhang et al.) and BLAST results in this study. BLAST searches of the NCBI Non-redundant Protein Sequences Database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) were performed using the homeodomain sequence of AtWUS (At2g17950) (Haecker et al.) as a query. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes and four maize WOX genes, which belong to the same subgroup of OsWOX3, was performed based on the sequences of the homeodomain regions. OsWOX3B was shown to be a homolog of AtWOX3/PRS (Figure5c). In contrast to Arabidopsis, three rice genes and four maize genes were identified in the WOX3 subfamily. The phylogenetic tree map indicated that genes of WOX3 subfamily were divided into several subgroups. LOC_Os11g01130 (also known as OsNS2 or OsWOX3) (Zhang et al.; Dai et al.), LOC_Os12g01120 (also known as OsNS or OsNS1) (Nardmann et al.; Zhang et al.), ZmNS1 and ZmNS2 were tightly related and close to AtWOX3/PRS. NUDA/GL-1/OsWOX3B was in a separate subgroup (Figure5c).
Trichome deficiency increases efficiency of grain packaging
The glabrous trait is beneficial for rice production due to the consequent reduction in dust pollution during grain harvesting, drying and processing. Furthermore, it has been observed that the bulk density of the glabrous rice varieties was higher (Rutger and Mackill). Theoretically, the lack of trichomes can make the glabrous kernels packed closer because the spaces occupied by the trichomes are released. It is clear that the size and shape of the grains also affect the grain packaging efficiency. In this study, the grain size and shape of OsWOX3B RNAi lines were similar with those of wild type plants. These strictly isogenic materials provided convincing evidence that lack of glum hair truly increased the efficiency of grain packaging. Glabrous rice varieties have been found in many locations worldwide and glabrous germplasm has been used to develop glabrous varieties. Studies suggest the existence of at least two loci that confer the glabrous phenotype in leaves and hulls although they have not been cloned. In this study, the NUDA locus of Yunnan Nuda Rice was demonstrated to be allelic to the GL-1 locus of American glabrous varieties. Furthermore, the NUDA/GL-1 gene was cloned by using a map-based approach and the locus was shown to encode a WUSCHEL-like homeobox gene (OsWOX3B) by RNAi and complementation transgenic studies.
Trichome is an excellent model system to study cell fate determination, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity and cell expansion in the model plant species, Arabidopsis. Recently, a number of genes that control the initiation and morphogenesis of trichomes have been identified using this model (Serna and Martin; Szymanski et al.), many of which encode several classes of transcriptional factors including MYB, WD-40, bHLH and HD-ZIP. However, experimental evidence has suggested that this model is limited to plants that belong to the Rosid division of the Eudicots (Serna and Martin). The PALE ALEURONE COLOUR (PAC) gene in maize that encodes a WD repeat protein can complement the glabrous phenotype of ttg1 mutant in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the pac mutant has no trichome phenotype (Carey et al.). In this study, a WUSCHEL-like homeobox (WOX) gene was identified that controlled trichrome development on the leaf and hull. These results suggested a separate pathway for trichome development in monocot plants and provided new evidence for the convergent evolution of trichome development pathways.
The WOX genes, which are specifically expressed in plants, form a large family that is a subgroup of the homodomain (HD)-containing transcription factors. WOX members characterized to date are involved in regulating diverse aspects of development. LOC_Os11g01130 (Wox3/OsNS2) is involved in the direct repression of YAB3, which is required for rice leaf development (Dai et al.). OsWOX11 is an auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene and is required to activate shoot-borne crown root development (Zhao et al.). Ectopic expression of QHB affects normal shoot and leaf development (Kamiya et al.). In this study, a member of the WOX3 subfamily was demonstrated to be involved in trichome development.
In addition to OsNS2, several other WOX3 genes have been investigated. AtWOX3/PRS is expressed in the periphery of the shoot meristem and recruits founder cells from all meristem layers to form lateral domains of both vegetative and floral organs. Ectopic expression of PRS forms multicellular bulges on the stem and sepal ([Matsumoto and Okada 2001]). The maize duplicate genes narrow sheath 1 (NS1) and narrow sheath 2 (NS2) function in a lateral domain of shoot apical meristems (Nardmann et al.). Mutant leaves miss a large domain, including the leaf margin and mutant internodes are shortened on the marginal side of the stem (Nardmann et al.). NS and PRS show conserved function during the recruitment of organ founder cells from the lateral domain of plant meristems (Nardmann et al.). However, none of these genes are involved in trichome development. The presence of orthologs in monocots, such as OsWOX3B in rice, which root outside NS/PRS branching, indicated the occurrence of duplication after the separation of monocot and dicot species (Nardmann et al.). The expression patterns of duplicated no-NS/PRS branching paralogs were different from those of NS/PRS branching paralogs, which indicates subfunctionalization (Nardmann et al.). The new function identified in WOX3 members outside NS/PRS branching in this study also supports the occurrence of subfunctionalization in this gene family.
In this study, the expression of OsWOX3B was only detected in the panicle of TN1. It is reported that PRS expresses only at a specific developmental stage ([Matsumoto and Okada 2001]). The negative detection of OsWOX3B in leaf in this study could also be due to the spatiotemporal expression of this gene. Interestingly, OsWOX3B expression was detected in the rice panicle of TN1 but not HMK rice. The transgenic OsWOX3B RNAi lines displayed a glabrous phenotype. These results suggested that OsWOX3B expression was suppressed in Yunnan Nuda Rice. However, no differences were identified in the coding or promoter sequences of this gene in comparisons of the HMK and pubescent Nipponbare varieties. It can be speculated that the glabrous phenotype of Yunnan Nuda rice results from epigenetic variations, such as DNA methylation.
Glabrous germplasms have been used to develop dust pollution free rice varieties. In this study, no differences were identified in the OsWOX3B gene sequences of pubescent rice and glabrous Yunnan Nuda rice, which would provide an advantageous functional molecular marker for breeding purposes. However, a dominantly inherited glabrous phenotype is obtained by RNAi suppression of OsWOX3B, thus indicating a novel future strategy for the development of glabrous rice, particularly glabrous hybrid rice.
Yunnan Nuda Rice exhibited a typical glabrous phenotype. The Nuda phenotype was shown to be controlled by a pair of recessive genes allelic with the well-characterized GL-1 locus. The NUDA/GL-1 locus was fine mapped to a 28.5 kb region. A WUSCHEL-like homeobox gene (OsWOX3B) was confirmed as the candidate gene by RNAi and complementation analyses.
In this study, Yunnan Nuda Rice variety HMK was used to identify the NUDA gene. The American glabrous rice variety with gl-1 gene Lemont was used for allelic tests. The pubescent indica variety TN1 was crossed with HMK to construct the mapping population. The pubescent variety Nipponbare was used as the receptor of OsWOX3B RNAi. All plants were grown in paddy fields in Shanghai, Hangzhou China during the summer and Hainan, China during the winter.
Scanning electron microscope analysis
Leaves were dissected, fixed overnight at 4°C in FAA (formalin:glacial acetic:70% ethanol = 1:1:18) and dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (50, 70, 80, 90, 95 and 100%). Samples were critical-point-dried, mounted, sputter-coated with platinum and observed and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (JSM–6360LV; JEOL Ltd, Tokyo).
DNA extraction and molecular marker analysis
Rice genomic DNA was extracted from fresh leaves according to the CTAB method ([Murray and Thompson 1980]). SSR markers information was obtained from Gramene (http://www.gramene.org). To construct a high-density linkage map for fine mapping in the target region, new insertion/deletion (InDel) markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed according to the sequence differences between indica var. 93–11 and japonica var. Nipponbare (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Primers flanking the InDel and SNP polymorphisms were designed using the Primer Premier 5.0 program and tested on the parent varieties.
Linkage map and gene mapping
Two newly developed markers and two polymorphic SSR markers (RM17713 and RM13) were used to construct a linkage map of NUDA/GL-1 using Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 (Lander et al) on the basis of the 158-plant F2 population. The marker order and the genetic distance between every two adjacent markers were determined in the target region on chromosome 5. These informative molecular markers and newly developed markers were used for genotyping each plant of the F2 population to identify recombinants in the target region. The linkage relationship between markers and the NUDA/GL-1 locus was analyzed. By assaying the recombinant events, the NUDA/GL-1 locus was narrowed down to a 28.5 kb region on the AP001 111 PAC clone.
RNA isolation, RT-PCR analysis and RACE
Total RNA was extracted from various rice tissues using EASYspin (Yuanpinghao, Tianjin). The extracted RNA was treated with RNase-free DNaseI (Frementas) to eliminate genomic DNA contamination according to the protocols recommended by the manufacturer.
First strand cDNA was synthesized from 2.5 μg total RNA using the RevertAidTM First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Fermentas, K1622). RT-PCR was performed with pairs of locus specific primers as follows:
LOC_Os05g02730, forward: 5’-CTTACACCACCAGCTACTACTACCC-3’, reverse, 5’-CTAGACGACGTCATGCTGCTCT-3’;
LOC_Os05g02740, forward: 5’-TGGGTTTCCTGCAAAACACT-3’, reverse 5’-CTACCGCCAGGCTTCTTGTA-3’;
LOC_Os05g02750/ LOC_Os05g02754, forward: 5’-TGTTCATCACCACGATCTGC-3’, reverse 5’-TGAAGAAGCTGAGGGAGGA-3’)
Rice OsActin1 control gene, forward: 5’-TGCTATGTACGTCGCCATCCAG-3’, reverse, 5’-AATGAGTAACCACGCTCCGTCA-3’).
To obtain the full length-cDNA of LOC_Os05g02730, 5’ and 3’ RACE were undertaken by using 5’RACE System for Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends Version 2.0 (Invitrogen, Catalog no.18374-058) and 3’-Full RACE Core Set Ver.2.0 (TaKaRa, Code: D314). The GSP1 primer for 5’ RACE is: 5’-CTAGACGACGTCATGCTGCTCT-3’. The GSP1 primer for 3’ RACE is:5’-CTTACACCACCAGCTACTACTACCC-3’.
In silico analysis of NUDA/GL-1/OsWOX3B protein
Conserved domain in NUDA/GL-1/OsWOX3B protein was searched in NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi). Blast search parameters were set as the default.
To search the WOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice, BLAST was performed using the Blastp program to search the NCBI Non-redundant Protein Sequences Database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) using the homeodomain sequence of AtWUS as a BLAST query. The collected amino acid sequences were aligned using the CLUSTALW program (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/search/clustalw-j.html) with standard parameters. A phylogenetic tree was generated with the neighbor-joining method and 1,000 bootstrap samples were generated to assess support for the inferred relationships.
Vector construction and transformation
LOC_Os05g02730 was amplified with its 2 kb native promoter from Nipponbare genome DNA using primers 02730-clone-f (5’-GGTGTAACGTCTGCCCAAGT-3’) and 02730-clone-r (5’-CATTCCATCCATACGCTTGA-3’). The 4.2 kb PCR product was cloned into the pMD18T (TaKaRa) vector and sequenced. The verified clone was digested with Hind III and Eco RI and the DNA fragment was cloned into pCAMBIA1301 (http://www.cambia.org). To construct the LOC_Os05g02730 RNAi vector, the third exon was amplified using primer 02730-RNAi-f (5’-GGGGACAAGTTTGTACAAAAAAGCAGGCTTCGGAGGCGGCGGCGTGGTGT-3’) and 02730-RNAi-r (5’-GGGGACCACTTTGTACAAGAAAGCTGGGTCCTAGACGACGTCATGCTGCT-3’) and the fragment was cloned into the gateway RNAi vector pANDA35HK (Miki et al.) (http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/Products-and-Services/Applications/Cloning/Gateway-Cloning/GatewayC-Misc/Protocols.html#bp). The complementary and RNAi vectors were introduced into HMK and Nipponbare, respectively, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation under selection with hygromycin at 50 mg/l ([Toki 1997]). The RNAi lines were verified with primers Guslinker-f (5’-CATGAAGATGCGGACTTACG-3’) and Guslinker-r (5’-ATCCACGCCGTATTCGG-3’).
Agronomic traits and evaluation of efficiency of grain packaging
The agronomic traits of the Nipponbare and the homozygous T2 generation of three independent OsWOX3/NUDA/GL-1 RNAi transgenic lines were individually surveyed during the summer of 2011 in Songjiang, Shanghai. Factors that included plant height, tillering number, grains per panicle, seed setting rate and 1,000-grain weight (g) were measured. The packaging efficiencies of the Nipponbare and the three RNAi transgenic lines were evaluated by measuring the number and weight of dried grains (about 10% of seed moisture contents) in 100 ml volume. Grain was harvested from four plants of each line. Mean values were compared and analyzed using a t-test.
Honglei Zhang and Kun Wu contributed equally to this work.
This research was supported by grants from the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB119000), the Ministry of Agriculture of China for Transgenic Research (2011ZX08009-003, 2011ZX08001-005), the National Science Foundation of China (31000094, 30970246, 31100188, 31161130533), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK2010294).
T1Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China. 2State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310006, China. 3Institute of Food Crops, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205, China. 4Puer Agricultural Research Institute, Puer 66500, China.
- Carey CC, Strahle JT, Selinger DA, Chandler VL: Mutations in the pale aleurone color1 regulatory gene of the Zea mays anthocyanin pathway have distinct phenotypes relative to the functionally similar TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 2004, 16: 450–464. 10.1105/tpc.018796PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dai M, Hu Y, Zhao Y, Liu H, Zhou DX: A WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX gene Represses a YABBY gene expression required for rice leaf development. Plant Physiol 2007, 144: 380–390. 10.1104/pp.107.095737PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foster KW, Rutger JN: Independent segregation of semi-dwarfing genes and a gene for pubescence in rice. J Hered 1978, 69: 137–138.Google Scholar
- Gibson PT, Maiti RK: Trichomes in segregating generations of Sorghum matings.1. Inheritance of presence and density. Crop Sci 1983, 23: 73–75. 10.2135/cropsci1983.0011183X002300010020xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haecker A, Gross-Hardt R, Geiges B, Sarkar A, Breuninger H, Herrmann M, Laux T: Expression dynamics of WOX genes mark cell fate decisions during early embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 2004, 131: 657–668. 10.1242/dev.00963View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hulskamp M, Schnittger A: Spatial regulation of trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Semin Cell Dev Biol 1998, 9: 213–220. 10.1006/scdb.1997.0209View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hulskamp M: Plant trichomes: a model for cell differentiation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2004, 5: 471–480. 10.1038/nrm1404View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnson CS, Kolevski B, Smyth DR: TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2, a trichome and seed coat development gene of Arabidopsis, encodes a WRKY transcription factor. Plant Cell 2002, 14: 1359–1375. 10.1105/tpc.001404PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kamiya N, Nagasaki H, Morikami A, Sato Y, Matsuoka M: Isolation and characterization of a rice WUSCHEL-type homeobox gene that is specifically expressed in the central cells of a quiescent center in the root apical meristem. Plant J 2003, 35: 429–441. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01816.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karkkainen K, Agren J: Genetic basis of trichome production in Arabidopsis lyrata. Hereditas 2002, 136: 219–226. 10.1034/j.1601-5223.2002.1360307.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirik V, Simon M, Wester K, Schiefelbein J, Hulskamp M: ENHANCER of TRY and CPC 2 (ETC2) reveals redundancy in the region-specific control of trichome development of Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 2004, 55: 389–398. 10.1007/s11103-004-0893-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar KA, Andrews DJ: Genetics of qualitative traits in pearl-millet - a Review. Crop Sci 1993, 33: 1–20. 10.2135/cropsci1993.0011183X003300010001xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lander ES, Green P, Abrahanson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincon SE, Newburg L: MAPMAKER: an interactive computing package for constructing primary genetic linkages of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1987, 1: 174–181. 10.1016/0888-7543(87)90010-3View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Larkin JC, Oppenheimer DG, Pollock S, Marks MD: Arabidopsis GLABROUS1 gene requires downstream sequences for function. Plant Cell 1993, 5: 1739–1748.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leisle D: Genetics of leaf pubescence in wheat. Crop Sci 1974, 14: 173–174.Google Scholar
- Li W, Wu J, Weng S, Zhang D, Zhang Y, Shi C: Characterization and fine mapping of the glabrous leaf and hull mutants (gl1) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Rep 2010, 29: 617–627. 10.1007/s00299-010-0848-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim HH, Domala Z, Joginder S, Lee SH, Lim CS, Abu Bakar CM: Rice millers' syndrome: a preliminary report. Br J Ind Med 1984, 41: 445–449.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lloyd AM, Payne CT, Zhang F: GL3 encodes a bHLH protein that regulates trichome development in arabidopsis through interaction with GL1 and TTG1. Genetics 2000, 156: 1349–1362.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma JF, Huang CF, Yamaji N, Mitani N, Yano M, Nagamura Y: A bacterial-type ABC transporter is involved in aluminum tolerance in rice. Plant Cell 2009, 21: 655–667. 10.1105/tpc.108.064543PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marks MD: Molecular genetic analysis of trichome development in Arabidopsis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 1997, 48: 137–163. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.137View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matsumoto N, Okada K: A homeobox gene, PRESSED FLOWER, regulates lateral axis-dependent development of Arabidopsis flowers. Genes Dev 2001, 15: 3355–3364. 10.1101/gad.931001PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miki D, Itoh R, Shimamoto K: RNA silencing of single and multiple members in a gene family of rice. Plant Physiol 2005, 138: 1903–1913. 10.1104/pp.105.063933PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moose SP, Lauter N, Carlson SR: The maize macrohairless1 locus specifically promotes leaf blade macrohair initiation and responds to factors regulating leaf identity. Genetics 2004, 166: 1451–1461. 10.1534/genetics.166.3.1451PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murray MG, Thompson WF: Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 1980, 8: 4321–4325. 10.1093/nar/8.19.4321PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagao S, Takahashi M, Kioshita T: Genetical studies on rice plant, XXV: Inheritance of three morphological characters, pubescence of leaves and floral glumes, and deformation of empty glumes. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 1960, 51: 299–314.Google Scholar
- Nardmann J, Ji J, Werr W, Scanlon MJ: The maize duplicate genes narrow sheath1 and narrow sheath2 encode a conserved homeobox gene function in a lateral domain of shoot apical meristems. Development 2004, 131: 2827–2839. 10.1242/dev.01164View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nardmann J, Zimmermann R, Durantini D, Kranz E, Werr W: WOX gene phylogeny in Poaceae: a comparative approach addressing leaf and embryo development. Mol Biol Evol 2007, 24: 2474–2484. 10.1093/molbev/msm182View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oppenheimer DG, Herman PL, Sivakumaran S, Esch J, Marks MD: A myb gene required for leaf trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis is expressed in stipules. Cell 1991, 67: 483–493. 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90523-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Payne CT, Zhang F, Lloyd AM: GL3 encodes a bHLH protein that regulates trichome development in arabidopsis through interaction with GL1 and TTG1. Genetics 2000, 156: 1349–1362.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qin F, Zhang D, Lin X, Xie Y: Classification of Yunnan Nuda compatible varieties. J Huazhong Agricultural University 1997, 16: 320–324.Google Scholar
- Rutger JN, Mackill DJ: Application of Mendelian genetics in rice breeding. In Rice Genetics IV, Proceedings of the Fourth International Rice Genetics Symposium, 22–27 October 2000, Los Baños, Philippines. Science Publishers, Inc and Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute, Enfield, NH (USA); 2001:29.Google Scholar
- Sarkarung S, Collins F: Inheritance of leaf pubescence in oats. AgronAbstr 1977, 77: 7.Google Scholar
- Sato K, Takeda K: Genetic analysis of large trichomes on the barley leaf blade. Barley Genet Newsl 1992, 22: 50–52.Google Scholar
- Scanlon MJ, Schneeberger RG, Freeling M: The maize mutant narrow sheath fails to establish leaf margin identity in a meristematic domain. Development 1996, 122: 1683–1691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schellmann S, Schnittger A, Kirik V, Wada T, Okada K, Beermann A, Thumfahrt J, Jurgens G, Hulskamp M: TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE mediate lateral inhibition during trichome and root hair patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBO J 2002, 21: 5036–5046. 10.1093/emboj/cdf524PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Serna L, Martin C: Trichomes: different regulatory networks lead to convergent structures. Trends Plant Sci 2006, 11: 274–280. 10.1016/j.tplants.2006.04.008View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Southwood R: Plant surfaces and insects - an overview. In Insects and the plant surface. Edited by: Juniper B, Southwood R. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd, London, Sydney & Baltimore; 1986:1–22.Google Scholar
- Szymanski DB, Lloyd AM, Marks MD: Progress in the molecular genetic analysis of trichome initiation and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Trends Plant Sci 2000, 5: 214–219. 10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01597-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toki S: Rapid and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in rice. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1997, 15: 16–21. 10.1007/BF02772109View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vandenbussche M, Horstman A, Zethof J, Koes R, Rijpkema AS, Gerats T: Differential recruitment of WOX transcription factors for lateral development and organ fusion in Petunia and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 2009, 21: 2269–2283. 10.1105/tpc.109.065862PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walker AR, Davison PA, Bolognesi-Winfield AC, James CM, Srinivasan N, Blundell TL, Eschc JJ, Marksc MD, Graya JC: The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell 1999, 11: 1337–1350.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang D, Sun S, Fa G, Lu X, Li Z, Ren G: Mapping a rice glabrous gene using simple sequence repeat markers. Rice Sci 2009, 16: 93–98. 10.1016/S1672-6308(08)60063-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Werker E: Trichome diversity and development. Adv Bot Res 2000, 31: 1–35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu ZH, Mccouch SR, Kinoshita T, Sato S, Tanksley SD: Association of morphological and RFLP markers in rice (Oryza-Sativa L). Genome 1995, 38: 566–574. 10.1139/g95-073View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang X, Zong J, Liu J, Yin J, Zhang D: Genome-wide analysis of WOX gene family in rice, sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis and poplar. J Integr Plant Biol 2010, 52: 1016–1026. 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00982.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao Y, Hu Y, Dai M, Huang L, Zhou DX: The WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene WOX11 is required to activate shoot-borne crown root development in rice. Plant Cell 2009, 21: 736–748. 10.1105/tpc.108.061655PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.