Strategies of adaptation to excess water stresses in the form of submergence or waterlogging in rice plants. Rice can adapt to submergence by internal aeration and growth control. For internal aeration, rice develops longitudinally forming aerenchyma and leaf gas films. On the other hand, some rice cultivars can survive under submergence by using special strategies of growth control: a quiescence strategy or an escape strategy. The Submergence-1A (SUB1A) gene is responsible for the quiescence strategy, which is important for survival under flash-flood conditions. The SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) genes are responsible for the escape strategy, which is important for survival under deepwater-flood conditions. Rice can adapt to soil waterlogging by forming aerenchyma and a barrier to radial O2 loss (ROL) in the roots.