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Fig. 1 | Rice

Fig. 1

From: A Journey to the West: The Ancient Dispersal of Rice Out of East Asia

Fig. 1

modified from Ray et al. (2012); modern range of wild rice species are indicated by dotted lines; (1) Susa (Strabo 1924 [7 BC-AD 23]; Miller 1981); (2) Khalchayan ca. AD 250 (Chen et al. 2020); (3) Konyr-tobe, seventh century AD (Bashtannik 2008); (4) Karaspan-tobe, fourth to fifth century AD (Bashtannik 2008); (5) Djuvan-tobe, seventh century AD (Bashtannik 2008); (6) Khujand (Sima 1993 [91–109 BC]); (7) Nos 28, 29, and 61, early first millennium AD (Gorbunova 1986); (8) Munchak Tepe, fifth to seventh centuries AD (Gorbunova 1986); (9) Paykend, ca. 1100 AD (Mir-Makhamad et al. in review); (10) Barikot, ca 1200 BC (Spengler et al. 2020); (11) Semthan 1500–500 BC (Lone et al. 1993); (12) Gufkral and Bruzahon, ca. 1800–1000 BC (Kajale 1982); (13) Tarsus (Dioscorides 2000 [AD 64]); (14) Senuwar (ca. 2200–600 BC); (15) Jhusi (ca. 2200–1900 BC); (16) Chopani Mando (third millennium BC); (17) Koldihwa (third millennium BC); (18) Mahagara (early second millennium BC); 19) Bahola (second millennium BC); (20) Masudpur (second millennium BC); (21) Astana Cemetery, AD 304–439 (Chen et al. 2012); (22) Quseir al-Qadim, second century AD (van der Veen and Morales 2015); (23) Mishna (second century AD); (24) Lesbos (Theophrastus 1916 [350–287 BC]); (25) Rome (Apicius 1984 [first century AD]; (Pliny the Elder 1855 [AD 77–79]); Horace (2008 [35 BC]); (26) Kyung-lung Mesa, AD 455–700 (Song et al. 2018); (27) Zebang, first millennium AD (Song et al. 2018); (28) Amasya (Strabo 1924 [7 BC-AD 23]); (29) Agira (Diodorus 1967 [ca. 60 BC]); (30) Istanbul (Anthimus 1996 [AD 500–525]); (31) Babylonian Talmud (sixth century AD); (32) Aelia Mursa, early second century AD (Reed and Leleković 2019); (33) Novaesium, early first century AD (Knörzer 1970); (34) Mogontiacum, late first millennium AD (Zach 2002); (35) Teshik-Kala in Kharasam, between seventh and eighth century AD (Brite et al. 2017); (36) Erkala (Merv) probably from the third century AD (Usmanova 1963); (37) Mleiha in the United Arab Emirates, third century AD) (Dabrowski et al. 2021); (38) Bukhara, ca. 1000 AD, ongoing studies; (39) Afrasiab, ca. 1000 AD, ongoing studies; (40) Berenike, first centuries AD (Cappers 2006); (41) Myos Hormos, first centuries AD (van der Veen 2011)

Map illustrating the ancient dispersal of rice; blue shaded areas represent the range of modern rice cultivation as

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