Skip to main content

Table 2 The plant defense-related genes that have been manipulated to enhance sheath blight resistance in rice

From: Strategies to Manage Rice Sheath Blight: Lessons from Interactions between Rice and Rhizoctonia solani

  Promoters/Transformation methods Resistance phenotype References
Name Functions
OsCHI11 The chitinases are chitin-degrading enzymes that hydrolyze the β-(1, 4) linkages of chitin. The maize ubiquitin promoter or CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation or protoplast transformation The transgenic plants overexpressing OsCHI11 exhibit enhanced resistance to sheath blight. Lin et al. (1995)
Baisakh et al. (2001)
Kumar et al. (2003)
Sridevi et al. (2003)
Sridevi et al. (2008)
Sripriya et al. (2008)
OsRC7 The chitinase gene (OsRC7) encodes a class I chitinase (PR3 family) in rice. The CaMV35S promoter, the biolistic method and protoplast transformation The transgenic plants overexpressing the chitinase show different levels of enhanced resistance to R. solani. Datta et al. (2001)
Os11g47510 A novel chitinase gene from indica rice The CaMV35S promoter, the biolistic method The transgenic plants show good correlation between transgene expression and the level of sheath blight resistance. Richa et al. (2017)
Ace-AMP1 Ace-AMP1, a cysteine rich antimicrobial peptide from Allium cepa, is homologous to plant ns-LTP and shows strong antimicrobial activity. An inducible rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) promoter or a constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation The transgenic plants exhibit increased resistance to blast, sheath blight, and bacterial leaf blight without agronomic trait penalty. Patkar and Chattoo
(2006)
Dm-AMP1 Dm-AMP1, an antifungal plant defensin from Dahlia merckii, directly inhibits the pathogen. The maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation The transgenic rice plants expressing Dm-AMP1 have the potential to provide broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice. Jha et al. (2009)
Rs-AFP2 Rs-AFP2, an antifungal plant defensin from Raphanus sativus, directly inhibits the pathogen. The maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation The transgenic rice plants expressing Rs-AFP2 show enhanced resistance to M. oryzae and R. solani. Jha and Chattoo
(2010)
OsWRKY30 WRKY30 activates expression of JA synthesis-related genes LOX, AOS2 and pathogenesis-related PR3 and PR10 genes The maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation The transgenic lines overexpressing WRKY30 have an enhanced resistance to R. solani. Peng et al. (2012)
OsWRKY80 OsWRKY80 activates OsWRKY4 expression, and subsequently activates JA/ET-dependent defense responses. The maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation Overexpression of OsWRKY80 in rice plants significantly enhances disease resistance to R. solani, while silencing of OsWRKY80 compromises disease resistance to R. solani. Peng et al. (2016)
OsACS2 OsACS2,1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, is a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis. The pathogen-inducible PBZ1 promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation The OsACS2-overexpression lines show significantly increased levels of endogenous ET and defence gene expression, increased resistance to R. solani and M. oryzae, with little or no influence on seed production. Helliwell et al. (2013)
AtNPR1 Nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) in Arabidopsis as the master regulator of salicylic acid-mediated signaling The CaMV35S promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
Green tissue-specific expression of AtNPR1 in rice confers resistance to sheath blight, with no concomitant abnormalities in plant growth and yield parameters. Molla et al. (2016)
BjNPR1 Brassica juncea nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (BjNPR1) causes redox-regulation in mustard akin to that of AtNPR1 in Arabidopsis. The CaMV35S promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
The BjNPR1-expressing rice lines display enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases, and improved agronomic traits. Sadumpati et al.(2013)
OsOSM1 Osmotins belong to thaumatin-like proteins of PR5 family and are involved in the permeability stress and defense response in plants The maize ubiquitin promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
An appropriately elevated level of OsOSM1 in transgenic rice enhances RSB resistance without affecting rice development or grain yield. Xue et al. (2016)
OsOXO4
and
OsCHI11
As mentioned above The green tissue-specific rice D54O-544 promoter and maize PEPC promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
Simultaneous overexpression of the defense-related genes OsCHI11 and OsOXO4 in rice leads to significant resistance against R. solani without distressing any agronomically important traits. Karmakar et al.(2015)
AtNPR1 and OsCHI11 As mentioned above The green tissue-specific rice D54O-544 promoter and maize PEPC promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
The transgenic rice plants with simultaneous overexpression of AtNPR1 and OsCHI11 show a significant upregulation of defense-related genes, PR genes, and antioxidant marker genes, and are more resistant to sheath blight as compared to the single transgene. Karmakar et al.(2017)
OsMAPK20-5 Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. Silencing of OsMAPK20-5 by inserting an inverted-repeat orientation (irMAPK20-5)
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
Silencing of OsMAPK20-5 causes rice plants more susceptibility to Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Magnaporthe grisea, but enhances sheath blight resistance. Liu et al. (2019)
OsGSTU5 OsGSTU5 is a tau class of glutathione-S-transferase in rice, an important defense-associated protein that confers resistance against several abiotic and biotic stresses. Via the expression vector pIRS154,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
The OsGSTU5-overexpressing rice lines are more tolerant, while the knockdown lines are more prone to Rhizoctonia infection. Tiwari et al. (2020)
OsASR2 OsASR2 (abscisic acid, stress and ripening 2) regulates the expression of a defense-related gene, Os2H16, by targeting the GT-1 cis-element. Maize Ubiquitin 1 promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
Overexpression of OsASR2 enhances the resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and tolerance to drought in rice. Li et al. (2018)
LPA1 LPA1 belongs to an INDETERMINATE DOMAIN protein family and regulates sheath blight resistance, tiller and leaf angle by activating auxin signaling. Maize Ubiquitin 1 promoter,
A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation
Overexpression of LPA1 and IDD13 enhances rice defenses against sheath blight via the activation of PIN1a in rice. Sun et al. (2019)
Sun et al. (2020a, 2020b)
DEP1 DEP1, a G-protein γ subunit, is a novel interactor of LPA1 and controls dense and erect panicle of rice. The knock-out mutant dep1 (PFG_3A-02648) was generated with T-DNA insertion. DEP1 knock-out increases planting density and resistance to sheath blight disease in rice. Liu et al. (2020)