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Table 1 The effective strategies to generate rice cultivars with enhanced sheath blight resistance are developed based on the findings in molecular interactions between rice and R. solani

From: Strategies to Manage Rice Sheath Blight: Lessons from Interactions between Rice and Rhizoctonia solani

Essential pathogenicity factors in R. solani

The strategies and genes/proteins used to enhance rice sheath blight resistance

Promoters/Transformation methods



Roles during infection



Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid (OA) is secreted and accumulated early in the pathogen–plant interaction, and is involved in plant cell wall degradation.


The oxalate oxidase detoxifies OA and generates CO2 and H2O2, which triggers defense responses in plants.

A green tissue-specific promoter-cassette, the biolistic method

Molla et al. (2013)

OxDC (Bacisubin)

The oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) from Bacillus subtilis catalyzes the production of formic acid and CO2 from OA, which reduces the accumulation of oxalic acid.

The CaMV35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

Qi et al. (2017)

RPMK1-1 and RPMK1-2

PMK1 homologs are essential for the formation of appressorium, the fungal infection srtructures, and invasive growth inside the plant.


Host-derived RNA interference is used to silence RPMK1-1 and RPMK1-2 in R. solani.

Embryogenic calli as a target tissue using a biolistic particle gun

Tiwari et al. (2017)


The gene encodes polygalacturonase.


Host-derived RNA interference (Silencing)

Constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation

Rao et al. (2019)


Polygalacturonases (PGs) secreted by R. solani degrade pectin, which is a major plant cell wall component.


The polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) can specifically recognize PGs to prevent fungal infection through inhibiting their cell wall degradation activity.

The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens

-mediated transformation

Wang et al. (2015b)


The maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation

Chen et al. (2019)


Zhu et al. (2019)


A biologically active toxin molecule produced by R. solani


The glyoxalase detoxifies the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal generated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens

-mediated transformation

Gupta et al. (2017)


masking chitin to evade PRR recognition, and maintaining the infection-specific hyphal structure

α-1,3- glucanase

A bacterial α-1,3-glucanase is able to remove α-1,3-glucan on the fungal surfaces.

The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens

-mediated transformation

Fujikawa et al. (2012)