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Table 1 The effective strategies to generate rice cultivars with enhanced sheath blight resistance are developed based on the findings in molecular interactions between rice and R. solani

From: Strategies to Manage Rice Sheath Blight: Lessons from Interactions between Rice and Rhizoctonia solani

Essential pathogenicity factors in R. solani The strategies and genes/proteins used to enhance rice sheath blight resistance Promoters/Transformation methods References
Name Roles during infection Name Functions
Oxalic acid Oxalic acid (OA) is secreted and accumulated early in the pathogen–plant interaction, and is involved in plant cell wall degradation. OsOXO4 The oxalate oxidase detoxifies OA and generates CO2 and H2O2, which triggers defense responses in plants. A green tissue-specific promoter-cassette, the biolistic method Molla et al. (2013)
OxDC (Bacisubin) The oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) from Bacillus subtilis catalyzes the production of formic acid and CO2 from OA, which reduces the accumulation of oxalic acid. The CaMV35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation Qi et al. (2017)
RPMK1-1 and RPMK1-2 PMK1 homologs are essential for the formation of appressorium, the fungal infection srtructures, and invasive growth inside the plant.   Host-derived RNA interference is used to silence RPMK1-1 and RPMK1-2 in R. solani. Embryogenic calli as a target tissue using a biolistic particle gun Tiwari et al. (2017)
AG1IA_04727 The gene encodes polygalacturonase.   Host-derived RNA interference (Silencing) Constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation Rao et al. (2019)
Polygalacturonase Polygalacturonases (PGs) secreted by R. solani degrade pectin, which is a major plant cell wall component. OsPGIP1 The polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) can specifically recognize PGs to prevent fungal infection through inhibiting their cell wall degradation activity. The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens
-mediated transformation
Wang et al. (2015b)
OsPGIP2L233F The maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation Chen et al. (2019)
ZmPGIP3 Zhu et al. (2019)
PAA A biologically active toxin molecule produced by R. solani Glyoxalase The glyoxalase detoxifies the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal generated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens
-mediated transformation
Gupta et al. (2017)
α-1,3-glucan masking chitin to evade PRR recognition, and maintaining the infection-specific hyphal structure α-1,3- glucanase A bacterial α-1,3-glucanase is able to remove α-1,3-glucan on the fungal surfaces. The CaMV35S promoter, A. tumefaciens
-mediated transformation
Fujikawa et al. (2012)