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Table 2 Global metabolomics studies investigating biotic stress responses in rice

From: Proteomics and Metabolomics Studies on the Biotic Stress Responses of Rice: an Update

Method Bacteria Cultivars Key finding Reference
LC-TOF-MS and GC-TOF-MS Xoo PXO99 and ∆PXO994rax- ST TP309 (S) and TP309_Xa21 Alkaloid biosynthesis was increased specifically in TP309_Xa21 to PX099 but not ∆PXO994rax- ST Sana et al. 2010a
RP-HPLC-MS Azospirillum strains 4B and B510 Cigalon and NPB Phenolic compounds were mainly affected Chamam et al. 2013
LC-MS Burkholderia glumae AU6208 and Escherichia coli B6 Cigalon and NPB treated with Azospirillum lipoferum 4B Flavonoid compounds and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives changed differently upon each bacterium Chamam et al. 2015
LC-MS/MS Xoo Basmati 385 treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa BRp3 Rice defense-related enzymes were activated by P. aeruginosa Yasmin et al. 2017
HPLC Pseudomonas putida RRF3 TKM 9 P. putida stimulated plant defense responses and altered rhizosphere chemical constituents Kandaswamy et al. 2019
UHPLC-QE Orbitrap/MS Bacillus pumilus LZP02 Longgeng 46 Bacillus pumilus enhanced carbohydrate metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis Liu et al. 2020
UHPLC-DAD/ESI-QTOF 10 PGPR strains and B. glumae AU6208 NPB Common metabolomics signature of nine compounds as rice response to different PGPR Valette et al. 2020
Method Fungi Cultivars Key finding Reference
FIE-MS, GC-TOF-MS M. oryzae strain Guy11 B. distachyon ABR1, H. vulgare Golden Promise and CO39 Common metabolic re-programming strategy was deployed by M. oryzae in different hosts Parker et al. 2009
HPLC-MS/MS Fusarium fujikuroi strain VE13 Dorella (S) and Selenio (R) Sakuranetin accumulated in resistant cultivar Siciliano et al. 2015a
GC-MS Harpophora oryzae strain R5–6-1 and M. oryzae strain Guy11 CO39 Different induction patterns of metabolites of the shikimate and lignin against pathogenic and mutualistic fungi Xu et al. 2015
GC-MS R. solani Narayan with and without Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13) treatment Identified novel aspect of rare sugar induced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Srivastava et al. 2016
CE/TOF-MS R. solani AG-1 isolate C-154 29S (S) and 32R (R) Canavanine was significantly higher in resistant rice Suharti et al. 2016aa
CE/TOF-MS R. solani AG-1 isolate C-154 29S (S) and 32R (R) Chlorogenic acid specifically induced in resistant rice Suharti et al. 2016ba
CE/TOF-MS R. solani AG-1 isolate C-154 29S (S) and 32R (R) Distinct responses of susceptible and resistant rice Suharti et al. 2016ca
GC-MS R. solani AG1-IA isolate BRS1 PB1 (S) Altered carbon metabolism and perturbed hormonal signaling Ghosh et al. 2017
2-DE, MALDI-TOF MS/MS & GC-MS R. solani isolate AGI-IA IR-64 (WT) and AtNPR1-OX line Novel immunity-related prognostic proteins induced by AtNPR1 Karmakar et al. 2019a,b
QTOF-UPHPLC MS M. oryzae strain Guy11 CO39, NPB, and LTH (S); Pi-gm, Pi-4B, and Pi-B (R) Bayogenin 3-O-Cellobioside, a saponin compound, was first identified in rice for the first time Norvienyeku et al. 2020a
Method Insect Cultivars Key finding Reference
1H NMR BPH TN1 (S) and B5 (R) Activation of GABA shunt and shikimate metabolisms was vital for BPH resistance Liu et al. 2010a
GC-MS Rice gall midge biotype 1 (GMB1) TN1, Kavya, and RP2068 Potential biomarkers of rice-gall midge interaction were identified Agarrwal et al. 2014a
GC-MS GMB1 RP2068-18-3-5 (R) During HR, upregulation of LPO and LPO marker metabolite azelaic acid; and higher accumulation of GABA at the feeding site Agarrwal et al. 2016a
UHPLC-MS and GC-MS Rice stem borer (Chilo suppressali) Minghui 63 Activation of phytohormones and shikimate-mediated and terpenoid-related secondary metabolism Liu et al. 2016
GC-MS BPH TN1 (S) and YHY15 (R) Resistance to BPH was mediated by SM synthesis through the shikimate pathway Peng et al. 2016a
1H NMR and GC-FID/MS BPH TN1 (S) and NIL-Bph15 (R) BPH adapts and recovers at different stage in susceptible and resistant plants Liu et al. 2017
UPLC-Q-TOF MS BPH Dongjin treated with B. velezensis YC7010 B. velezensis induced SA, JA, and secondary metabolites to enhance resistance Harun-Or-Rashid et al. 2018
GC-MS BPH NPB (S) and Bph6-transgenic line R6 (R) Bph6 resistance gene affected lipid levels in leaf sheath only Zhang et al. 2018a
GC-MS & LC-MS BPH TN1 (S), IR36 and IR56 (R) Defense-related metabolites, cyanoamino acids, and lipid metabolism were increased by BPH and were more stable in resistant cultivars Kang et al. 2019a
UPLC-QToF-MS BPH KDML105 (S) and IL308 (R) Susceptible and resistant rice induced common SMs at different levels Uawisetwathana et al. 2019a
LC-ESI-MS/MS Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Minghui 63 JA-dependent signaling pathway was found vital in response to leaf folder Wang et al. 2020
Method Nematode Cultivars Key finding Reference
HPLC Ditylenchus angustus Two susceptible and five resistant cultivars Induction and accumulation of phenolic compounds in the resistant varieties Gill et al. 1996a
Method Others Cultivars Key finding Reference
LC-MS and Q-TOF MS/MS NA ZH17 (WT), wrky62, wrky76 and dsOW62/76 SA, JA, and phenolamides were increased and free pools of flavonoids were decreased in the double mutant Liang et al. 2017
  1. Abbreviations: single asterisk “a” indicates comparative metabolomics studies of resistant and susceptible plants; “b” indicates the study applied both proteomics and metabolomics approaches; Xoo Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, S Susceptible, R Resistant, WT Wild type, OX Over-expression, NPB Nipponbare, PB1 Pusa Basmati1, PGPR Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, B. glumae Burkholderia glumae, M. oryzae Magnaporthe oryzae, B. distachyon Brachypodium distachyon, H. vulgare Hordeum vulgare, SA Salicylic acid, JA Jasmonic acid, BPH Brown plant hopper, TN1 Taichung Native-1, HR Hypersensitive response, LPO Lipid peroxidation, SM Secondary metabolite NIL Near-isogenic line, B. velezensis Bacillus velezensis, LMM Lesion mimic mutant, dsOW62/76 Mutant containing RNA interfering constructs of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76, 2-DE Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, MS Mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF Matrix-assisted laser desorption Ionization time of flight, TOF Time-of-Flight, Q-TOF Quadrupole time-of-flight, LC-MS Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography, RP-HPLC Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, UHPLC Ultra high performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS Gas chromatography mass spectrometry, CE-MS Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry, 1H NMR Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, FID Flame-ionization detection, DAD Diode array detector, NA Not applicable