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Fig. 2 | Rice

Fig. 2

From: Contribution of Small RNA Pathway to Interactions of Rice with Pathogens and Insect Pests

Fig. 2

Small RNA regulatory modules in PTI, ETI, and hormone signal pathway. PAMPs derived from fungi or bacteria, such as chitin or peptidoglycan (PGN), are recognized by the pattern-recognition receptors (i.e. CEBiP and CERK1, or LYP4, and LYP6) to activate PTI responses including: a) activation of MAPK cascades, b) calcium influx, c) ROS burst, d) the induction of PR genes and phytoalexins genes, and e) callose deposition. The miR528-AO and miR398b-SODs modules contribute to the production of superoxide radicals (O·2) and hydroxyl radical (OH·), and H2O2 accumulation. The modules regulating PR genes expression include miR169-NF-YA4/10/11, miR7695-Nramp6.8, miR166-EIN2, miR156-SPL14/IPA1, miR164-NAC60, miR319-TCP21, miR396-GRF8, miR1873-Os05g01790, miR167-ARF12, miR162-DCL1, and miR444-MADSs. The miR7695-Nramp6.8 and miR162-DCL1 module also participate in phytoalexins biosynthesis. The miR164-NAC60 module may be involved in callose deposition. Besides, the recognition between effectors and R proteins activates ETI that often leads to the hypersensitive response (HR). The siRNAs derived from the miniature transposons MITE1 and MITE2 regulate PigmS expression thus control the activity of PigmR; and the miR164-NAC60 module may contribute to the occurrence of HR. Hormone signal pathways differently regulate rice resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), viruses, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) and the planthopper (BPH). Jasmonic acid (JA) signal pathway positively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae, viruses, Xoo, and R. solani but enhances susceptibility to BPH. Salicylic acid (SA) signal pathway positively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae, Xoo and BPH. Ethylene (ET) signal pathway positively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae, R. solani but enhances susceptibility to Xoo. Auxin signal pathway positively regulates rice immunity against virus and R. solani but increases susceptibility to M. oryzae and Xoo. Gibberellic acid (GA) signal pathway negatively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae and Xoo. Four modules may block JA signal pathway to promote the infection of M. oryzae, or Xoo, including miR167-ARFs, miR396-GRFs, miR319-TCP21, and miR156-SPLs. The miR396-GRF8 module may impair SA signal pathway to promote the infestation of BPH. The miR166-EIN2 module may enhance ET signal pathway to interfere with the infection of M. oryzae. The siR109944-FBL55 module may impede auxin signal pathway to promote R. solani infection. The miR160-ARF18 and miR393-TIR1/AFB modules may act in auxin signal pathway. The miR156-IPA1/SPL7 module may enhance GA signal pathway to promote the infection of Xoo. The miR159-GAmyb module may act in GA signal pathway. Arrows indicate positive regulation, circles indicate negative regulation

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