Skip to main content

Table 2 Formosan language evidence for the meaning of eight reconstructed agricultural words

From: A northern Chinese origin of Austronesian agriculture: new evidence on traditional Formosan cereals

Rice-specific PAN meaning acc. to (Blust and Trussel 2016) PAN form Evidence cited in (Blust and Trussel 2016) in support of rice-specific meaning Foxtail millet-related cognate forms from our fieldwork
cooked rice *Semay Amis hmay ‘cooked rice’
Kavalan mːay ‘cooked rice’
Pazeh sumay ‘cooked rice’
Amis (Dulan) hmay ‘cooked grain, as of foxtail’
Kavalan mmay ‘cooked grain, as of foxtail’
Kaxabu su'maj‘cooked grain, as of foxtail’
rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice *beRas Amis felac ‘milled rice grain’
Atayal buax ‘hulled, uncooked cereal; grains (of rice or millet)’
Kanakanabu və’əra ‘husked rice’
Kavalan beRas ‘rice that has been harvested but not yet cooked’
Paiwan vat ‘seed, kernel, grain; testicles’
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) veRas ‘husked rice’
Rukai (Maga) bósə ‘husked rice’
Rukai (Tona) bəʔásə ‘husked rice’
Saaroa ə-vəraə ‘husked rice’
Tsou fərsə ‘husked rice’
Amis (Dulan) flac ‘dehusked grain of foxtail’
Atayal vuax ‘dehusked grain, as of foxtail’
Kanakanabu vura ‘dehusked grain, as with foxtail’
Kavalan vχas ‘dehusked grain, as of foxtail’
Paiwan (Daniao, Taiban, Dewen) vat ‘dehusked grain, as of foxtail’
Rukai (Dewen) ‘bəratə ‘dehusked grain, as of foxtail’
Sediq beras ‘dehusked grain, as with foxtail’
rice bran/husk *qeCah Amis ʔtah ‘chaff’
Proto-Rukai *eca ‘husk of rice’
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) HeTa ‘rice husk and bran’
Amis tah ‘chaff, as of foxtail millet’
Rukai (Taromak) eca ‘chaff, as of foxtail millet’
rice mortar *iŋsuŋ Kavalan iŋsuŋ ‘mortar’ Kavalan insuŋ ‘dehusking/crushing mortar, used for foxtail millet’
rice seedling *bunabun Paiwan vunavun ‘seedlings of grains or grasses’ Rukai (Dewen) bunabunu ‘germinated grain, seedling, as with foxtail millet’
seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting *bineSiq Bunun binsiq ‘seed preserved (as millet seed)’
Puyuma bini ‘seed of grains’
Saisiyat binSi seed of grains
Thao finshiq to sow, scatter seed in planting
Saisiyat binʃiʔ seed for sowing (as of foxtail millet)’
Thao kamar a vavinçeq ‘foxtail millet seeds for sowing’
Bunun binisjɪq ‘seed for sowing (as of foxtail millet)’
sticky rice cake *qemu Amis ʔəmu ‘New Year's cake, made of sweet sticky rice’
Paiwan qemu ‘something that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour’
Puyuma Hemu ‘flour’
Thao qmu ‘sticky rice; sticky rice cake’
Paiwan (Daniao, Taiban) q < in > əmu ‘flour, as of foxtail millet’
to pound rice *bayu Bunun ma-bazu ‘to pound’ Bunun maɓaðu ‘to pound grain to remove seed coat, as with foxtail millet’