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Table 3 Median-scaled relative abundance of rice bran secondary metabolites with medicinal properties

From: Rice Bran Metabolome Contains Amino Acids, Vitamins & Cofactors, and Phytochemicals with Medicinal and Nutritional Properties

Metabolite HMDB ID Calrose Dixiebelle Neptune Function References
4-hydroxybenzoatea 00500 1.18 1.87 1.04 • Antimicrobial (broad spectrum bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties
• Antioxidant (scavenges free radicals to reduce skin damage)
(Kosova et al. 2015)
(Barreca et al. 2016)
Abscisate 35140 0.62 0.31 0.40 • Anti-inflammatory (type II diabetes and obesity-related inflammation) (Guri et al. 2007)
Alpha-amyrina 36657 0.06 0.08 0.12 • Anti-inflammatory
• Antimicrobial (broad spectrum bacteriostatic properties)
(Liliana Hernández Vázquez, 2012)
Apigenin 02124 ND 0.08 0.46 • Cancer chemopreventive
• Anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic agent
(Balasubramanian et al. 2006)
(Vargo et al. 2006)
Astragalin 37429 ND ND 2.89 • Anti-histaminergic (reduces IgE production)
• Anti-parasitic (against Fasciolopsis buski)
• Anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation through nuclear factor NF-kB inhibition)
• Neuroprotective (protects neurons from hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell death during neuroblastoma)
(Kotani et al. 2000)
(Ananta Swargiary 2015) (Chung et al. 2016)
Benzoate 01870 4.38 3.50 3.36 • Antimicrobial (broad spectrum bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties) (Nascimento et al. 2000)
Caffeate 01964 ND 0.20 1.23 • Antioxidant
• Cancer chemopreventive (functions as an antiproliferative chemotherapeutic agent)
(Olthof et al. 2001)
(Rajendra Prasad et al. 2011)
Chlorogenic acid 03164 ND ND 0.03 • Antioxidant
• Anti-diabetic (influences glucose metabolism by inhibiting alpha-glucosidase)
• Anti-septic arthritis caused by Candida albicans.
• Sleep-wake cycle modulator
(Olthof et al. 2001)
(Upadhyay and Mohan Rao, 2013)
Chrysoeriol 30667 0.49 0.16 0.92 • Antioxidant
• Anti-inflammatory(Inhibits lipid peroxidation, inhibits production of superoxide anion by xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, inhibits the lipopolysaccharideinduction of the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene.)
(Mishra et al. 2003)
(Choi et al. 2005)
Cinnamate 00930 0.31 0.12 0.18 • Antimicrobial (anti-mycobacterial agent that can be developed against tuberculosis)
• Cancer chemopreventive (anti-proliferative activity against melanoma cells and lung carcinoma cells, inhibition of histone deacetylases in colon cancer cells)
• Anti-obesogenic
• Anti-hypertensive (inhibits serum lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme)
• Cardio-protective (In electrocardiography, it decreases the ST segment elevation induced by acute myocardial ischemia)
• Antioxidant
• Anti-inflammatory
(Y. L. Chen et al. 2011)
(Zhu et al. 2016)
(Mnafgui et al. 2015)
(Song et al. 2013)
Ergothioneinea 03045 ND 0.79 0.99 • Antioxidant (Aruoma et al. 2012)
Ferulate 00954 6.22 10.28 19.69 • Antioxidant (Kanski et al. 2002 2002)
Indolin-2-one - 1.19 0.30 3.80 • Cancer chemopreventive (anti-proliferative and inhibits thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)) (Kaminska et al. 2016)
Luteolin 05800 ND 0.04 1.67 • Antioxidant (scavenges ROS)
• Antimicrobial (broad spectrum gram positive bacteriostatic properties and yeast)
(Lin et al. 2008)
(Singh et al. 2016)
Piperidinea 34301 0.76 0.69 0.91 • Anti-hypertensive (Aisaka et al. 1985; Patel et al. 2006)
Quinatea 03072 8.86 1.65 7.27 • Anti-inflammatory
• Antioxidant
(Pero et al. 2009)
Salicylate 01895 6.67 0.48 2.12 • Anti-diabetic (reduces blood glucose via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase)  • Anti-inflammatory (Hawley et al. 2012)
Sinapic acid 32616 0.15 1.99 2.22 • Anti-inflammatory
• Anti-diabetic (increases expression of glucose transporter type 4)
(Yun et al. 2008)
(Cherng et al. 2013)
Sitostanol (Stigmastanol) 00494 ND 0.10 0.06 • Anti-hyperlipidemic (Batta et al. 2006)
Syringic acid 02085 0.32 0.36 0.49 • Antioxidant (prevents oxidative stress, inhibits the production of free radicals and reduces lipid peroxidation)
• Antimicrobial (against Escherichia coli LY01 (g-), Cronobacter sakazakii (g-) and, Oenococcus oeni (g+))
• Anti-diabetic (enhancement of insulin action and C-peptide)
(Cikman et al. 2015)
(Shi et al. 2016)
(Muthukumaran et al. 2013)
Tartaric acida 00956 0.31 0.32 0.26 • Antimicrobial (against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus suis) (Zhihong Gao, 2012)
Vanillate 00484 1.21 2.04 2.20 • Antibacterial (against Cronobacter spp)
• Anticoagulant (against snake venom)
(Yemis et al. 2011)
(Dhananjaya et al. 2006)
Vanillin 12308 0.69 1.18 0.83 • Antioxidant
• Anti-inflammatory
• Antibacterial (agains Cronobacter spp)
• Treatment of sickle cell disease
(Makni et al. 2012; Makni et al. 2011)
(Yemis et al. 2011)
(Abdulmalik et al. 2011)
  1. ND Not Detected
  2. aNewly identified for expression in rice bran