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Table 2 Median-scaled relative abundance of rice bran cofactors & vitamins metabolites with medicinal properties

From: Rice Bran Metabolome Contains Amino Acids, Vitamins & Cofactors, and Phytochemicals with Medicinal and Nutritional Properties

Metabolite HMDB ID Calrose Dixiebelle Neptune Function References
Alpha-tocopherol 01893 0.02 0.05 0.03 • Antioxidant (antioxidant activity against (Fe2+ + ascorbate) and (Fe 2+ + NADPH)-induced lipid peroxidation, decreases plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability)
• Anti-hypertensive (inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting protein kinase C activity)
(Serbinova et al. 1991)
(Kontush et al. 1996)
(Chatelain et al. 1993)
Alpha-tocopherol acetate 34227 0.02 0.04 ND • Boosts alpha-tocopherol antioxidant bioactivity (Brigelius-Flohe and Traber, 1999)
Alpha-tocotrienol 06327 0.01 0.08 0.05 • Antioxidant (Serbinova et al. 1991)
Beta-tocopherol 06335 0.001 ND ND • Antioxidant (free radical scavenging) (Kadoma et al. 2006)
Delta-tocopherol 02902 ND 0.01 ND • Antioxidant (free radical scavenging)
• Anti-hypertensive (inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting protein kinase C activity)
(Kadoma et al. 2006)
(Chatelain et al. 1993)
Gamma-tocopherol 01492 ND 0.07 0.03 • Anti-inflammatory
• Anti-hypertensive (inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting protein kinase C activity)
(Jiang et al. 2000)
(Chatelain et al. 1993)
Gamma-tocotrienol 12958 0.03 0.17 0.12 • Radio-protector
• Anti-hypertensive
(Ghosh et al. 2009)
Glucarate (saccharate)a 00663 0.89 0.13 ND • Cancer chemopreventive (by inhibiting serum β-glucuronidase) (Lampe et al. 2002)
(Hanausek et al. 2003)
Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) 01406 2.00 2.04 4.28 • Anti-inflammatory (treatment of skin disorders such as acne vulgaris)
• Cancer chemopreventive (treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer)
• Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (by inhibiting of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and neuro-inflammatory enzyme)
(Khodaeiani et al. 2013; Niren, 2006)
(A. C. Chen et al. 2015; Surjana et al. 2012)
(Turunc Bayrakdar et al. 2014)
Nicotinate 01488 12.11 12.11 21.17 • Anti-hyperlipidemic (Duggal et al. 2010; Figueroa et al. 2015; Zema, 2000)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) 02075 2.67 4.22 5.03 • Required for biosynthesis of amino acids, sugars and fatty acids, and major centrally-acting neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin, dopamine, and GABA)
• Anti-hypertensive
• Anti-hyperlipidemic
• Anti-hyperglycemic
• Cancer chemopreventive (colon cancer)
(Percudani and Peracchi, 2009)
(Yarlagadda and Clayton, 2007)
(Hellmann and Mooney, 2010)
(Larsson et al. 2010)
Threonic acida 00943 36.15 20.99 16.44 • Prevention of androgen-driven balding
• Increases bioavailability of vitamin C for T-cells (calcium L-threonate)
• Increases bioavailability of iron (is used for treatment of iron deficiency anemia
(Kwack et al. 2010)
(Fay and Verlangieri, 1991)
(X. X. Li et al. 2005)
Trigonelline 00875 608.11 0.77 11.59 • Cancer chemopreventive (Hirakawa et al. 2005)
(Liao et al. 2015)
  1. ND: Not Detected
  2. aNewly identified for expression in rice bran