Possible route(s) of modern human migrations towards East Asia according to different hypotheses proposed by geneticists (“pincer” or “overlapping” model: both the northern and the southern routes; “southern origin” model: only the southern route), along with representative archaeological sites during the critical period (100,000–20,000 BP), knowing that the shallow parts of the sea (light gray/blue on the map) were postulated as land area with the lower sea level of last ice age (Sun et al. 2000). References for the archaeological sites: Mal’ta: Vasil’ev (1993); Upper Cave: Chen et al. (1989); Tianyuan Cave: Shang et al. (2007); Huanglong Cave: Wu et al. (2006); Liujiang: Shen et al. (2002); Callao Cave: Mijares et al. (2010).