Phylogeny of the graminoid Poales. Grasses are in the gray box. Relationships among grass subfamilies based on data from Vicentini et al. (2008); the position of subfamily Microairoideae is unresolved within the PACCMAD clade, and is not included. Asterisk indicates a clade that is poorly supported by the available data. Relationships among the grasses and the other poalean families are based on Marchant and Briggs (2007).